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Die Spitzenteleskope stehen in Chile, denn nirgendwo sonst ist die Luft ruhiger, nirgends ist es klarer und trockener als in der Atacama-Wüste. The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. [1] ALMA is expected to provide insight on star birth during the early Stelliferous era and detailed imaging of local star and planet formation. memorandum of understanding for design & development. One theory suggests that the faster accretion rate might be due to the complex magnetic field of the protoplanetary disk. The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array. By the summer of 2011, sufficient telescopes were operational during the extensive program of testing prior to the Early Science phase for the first images to be captured. Zusammen mit Folgebeobachtungen könnte die Entdeckung vieler Galaxienhaufen zum Verständnis der Strukturentwicklung im Universum und der Dunklen Energie beitragen. The core purpose of the ARC is to assist the user community with the preparation of observing proposals, ensure observing programs meet their scientific goals efficiently, run a help-desk for submitting proposals and observing programs, delivering the data to principal investigators, maintenance of the ALMA data archive, assistance with the calibration of data and providing user feedback. The 130-ton ALMA antenna transporter "Otto" during its naming ceremony. Share the excitement of the inauguration ceremony and contemplate the breathtaking images from ALMA itself and views of its unique environment in the Atacama Desert. Start of Early Science Cycle 0. It enables transformational research into the physics of the cold Universe, probes the first stars and galaxies, and directly images the formation of planets. Posted By: Hiker June 30, 2015. Image of telescope in transit at the Site Erection Facility. Erste Ergebnisse wurden 2010 veröffentlicht[2] und es wurden Gravitationslinseneffekte beobachtet[3] und erste Hinweise auf Dunkle Energie allein aus dem CMB[4]. Mit einem zweiten 2-m-Spiegel. As no known non-biological source of phosphine on Venus could produce phosphine in the concentrations detected, this indicated the presence of biological organisms in the atmosphere of Venus. Array configurations from approximately 150 m to 14 km, Faster and more flexible imaging instrument than the Very Large Array, Largest and most sensitive instrument in the world at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, Point source detection sensitivity 20 times better than the Very Large Array, Data reduction system will be CASA (Common Astronomy Software Applications) which is a new software package based on, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 04:24. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.[8]. Linking three antennas allows corrections of errors that can arise when only two antennas are used, thus paving the way for precise, high-resolution imaging. Final European / North American agreement, with 50% of funding from ESO, and 50% of funding shared between USA and Canada. ESOcast 51: Video report about the ALMA correlator. On 30 September 2013 the final ALMA antenna was handed over to the ALMA Observatory. [3][4] ALMA began scientific observations in the second half of 2011 and the first images were released to the press on 3 October 2011. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. ("Alma" means "soul" in Spanish and "learned" or "knowledgeable" in Arabic.) On 11 August 2014, astronomers released studies, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) for the first time, that detailed the distribution of HCN, HNC, H2CO, and dust inside the comae of comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON). A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of "Atacama Large Millimeter Array", or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. Japan constructed 16 Antennas. [42][43], In March 2020, ALMA was shut down due to the COVID-19 coronavirus crisis. The dazzling full moon sets behind the Very Large Telescope in Chile's Atacama Desert in this photo released June 7, 2010 by the European Southern Observatory. Dezember 2018 um 16:19 Uhr bearbeitet. Naš teleskop bo stal na izjemni lokaciji, pripravljen za izjemne astronomske raziskave, rezultate in fotografije vesolja. Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. [27], ALMA participated in the Event Horizon Telescope project, which produced the first direct image of a black hole, published in 2019. The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable "zoom", similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States. [16] The solution chosen is to use two custom 28-wheel self-loading heavy haulers. This video begins near the ground of the Chajnantor Plateau, at 5000 meters altitude in the Chilean Andes, and later takes in views of the 58 antennae that make up the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. [35], The Atacama Compact Array, ACA, is a subset of 16 closely separated antennas that will greatly improve ALMA's ability to study celestial objects with a large angular size, such as molecular clouds and nearby galaxies. "The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the 600< ell <8000 Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 GHz", Astrophysical Journal, Band 722, 2010, S. 1148–1161. The guests are shown with one of the giant ALMA transporters as well as other components. [2] Costing about US$1.4 billion, it is the most expensive ground-based telescope in operation. European, North American & Japanese draft agreement, with Japan providing new extensions to ALMA. The target of the observation was a pair of colliding galaxies with dramatically distorted shapes, known as the Antennae Galaxies. The ACT Collaboration; Das; Sherwin; Aguirre; Appel; Bond; Carvalho; Devlin et al.. This artist's rendering of the ALMA array on the Chajnantor plateau shows how, as an interferometer, ALMA acts like a single telescope with a diameter as large as the distance between its individual antennas (represented by the blue circle). The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. ALMA is an international partnership among Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Chile. [32] Its current director since February 2018 is Sean Dougherty.[33]. A view across the plains of Chajnantor with the ALMA construction site at the center. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, which observe electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This was the number of antennas specified for ALMA to begin its first science observations, and was therefore an important milestone for the project. GoChile, slovenski teleskop v Čilu V želji, da bi se ukvarjali z astronomijo, ne pa z vremenom in vse večjo svetlobno onesnaženostjo, smo se odločili, da gremo v Čile! European/U.S. Seine Antennenanlage besteht aus 66 mobilen, ausrichtbaren Parabolantennen, mit meist 12 m Durchmesser, die über Entfernungen von bis zu 16 km verteilt werden können und zu einem Interferometer-Radioteleskop zusammengeschaltet werden. Gordon Gillet, ESO. The array has been constructed on the 5,000 m (16,000 ft) elevation Chajnantor plateau - near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. An ALMA radio telescope next to the Otto vehicle used to transport it. The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) observatory lies high in the Atacama desert, close to San Pedro de Atacama. [37], In August 2013, workers at the telescope went on strike to demand better pay and working conditions. Taiwan joins the ALMA Project through Japan. Time-lapse video at the ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS). This 16-minute video presents the history of ALMA from the origins of the project several decades ago to the recent first science results. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter's wide-field imaging capability. First move of an ALMA antenna to Chajnantor. As of 2014[update], most theories did not expect planetary formation in such a young (100,000-1,000,000-year-old) system, so the new data spurred renewed theories of protoplanetary development. [29][30] However, this theory has since been overturned, and there has been a new study indicating that there is no phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus. The ACT Collaboration; Sherwin; Dunkley; Das; Appel; Bond; Carvalho; Devlin et al., https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atacama_Cosmology_Telescope&oldid=183294618, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. On 28 July 2011, the first European antenna for ALMA arrived at the Chajnantor plateau, 5,000 meters above sea level, to join 15 antennas already in place from the other international partners. [18] Both transporters were delivered to the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) in Chile on 15 February 2008. The array has been constructed on the 5,000 m (16,000 ft) elevation Chajnantor plateau - near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. The European ARC (led by ESO) has been further subdivided into ARC-nodes[34] located across Europe in Bonn-Bochum-Cologne, Bologna, Ondřejov, Onsala, IRAM (Grenoble), Leiden and JBCA (Manchester). Das Atacama Cosmology Telescope ACT ist ein Radioteleskop zur Untersuchung des kosmischen Mikrowellenhintergrunds (CMB). By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Atacama Cosmology Telescope. This location was chosen for its high elevation and low humidity, factors which are crucial to reduce noise and decrease signal attenuation due to Earth's atmosphere. Oktober 2007 first light. Visiting the ALMA Observatory – Atacama, Chile. 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, Location of Atacama Large Millimeter Array, The first two ALMA antennas linked together as an, Three ALMA antennas linked together as an interferometer for the first time, ALMA prototype-antennas at the ALMA test facility, July 2008 NRAO ALMA newsletter article by Dr. Al Wootten, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan, Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, After a Tough Year, ALMA's Star Begins to Rise at Last, removing excessive or indiscriminate images, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, "Alma telescope peers into space from Chile's mountains", "ALMA Inauguration Heralds New Era of Discovery", "At the End of the Earth, Seeking Clues to the Universe", "Alma telescope: Ribbon cut on astronomical giant", "ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array", "Ground breaking ceremony for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)", "National Radio Astronomy Observatory - Legacy Content - ALMA (CV)", Chile's ALMA probes for origins of universe, "General Dynamics Receives $169 Million to Build 12-Meter Antennas for Advanced Radio Telescope", https://www.almaobservatory.org/en/announcement/result-of-the-initial-testing-of-the-japanese-aca-12-m-antenna-to-be-delivered-to-alma-2/, https://www.almaobservatory.org/en/press-release/alma-observatory-equipped-with-its-first-antenna/, "Monster Moves, Season 5, Episode 6: Mountain Mission", "European ALMA antenna brings total on Chajnantor to 16", "Birth of Planets Revealed in Astonishing Detail in ALMA's 'Best Image Ever' - NRAO: Revealing the Hidden Universe", "RELEASE 14-038 - NASA's 3-D Study of Comets Reveals Chemical Factory at Work", "Event Horizon Telescope Captures First Image of Black Hole | Astronomy | Sci-News.com", "Phosphine gas in the cloud decks of Venus", "Scientists find gas linked to life in atmosphere of Venus", "No phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus", "First Light for Band 5 at ALMA - New receivers improve ALMA's ability to search for water in the Universe", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, ALMA Observatory: ALMA Selects New Director, "New 2012 ALMA Video Compilation Released", "ALMA Compact Array Completed and Named After Japanese Astronomer", "Workers at Earth's largest radio telescope in Chile strike over pay, working conditions", "Workers strike at world's largest radio telescope", "ALMA resumes operations after end of workers' strike", "COVID-19 (coronavirus) Measures at ALMA", "ALMA Residencia Handed Over - New accommodation for staff and visitors at ALMA site in Chile", How the Huge ALMA Radio Telescope Works (Infographic), An optical system design for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network, Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atacama_Large_Millimeter_Array&oldid=989810326, Articles with infoboxes completely from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array. While the northern hemisphere array will be more limited in size and will focus on CTA’s low- and mid-energy ranges from 20 GeV to 20 TeV, the southern hemisphere array will span the entire energy range of CTA, covering gamma-ray energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Der CMB wird mit einer Auflösung von einem Millionstel Grad vermessen und einer Winkelauflösung im Bogenminuten-Bereich. [7] The array has much higher sensitivity and higher resolution than earlier submillimeter telescopes such as the single-dish James Clerk Maxwell Telescope or existing interferometer networks such as the Submillimeter Array or the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure facility. Moonrise above the 12 meter wide access road to the ALMA High Site. Arrival of the two ALMA transporters in Chile. The complex was built primarily by European, U.S., Japanese, and Canadian companies and universities. The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The Ahlarkapin Observatory is located in San Pedro de Atacama and run by local guides. The first vehicle was completed and tested in July 2007. The transporters, which feature a driver's seat designed to accommodate an oxygen tank to aid breathing the thin high-altitude air, place the antennas precisely on the pads. Ähnliche Ziele verfolgt das South Pole Telescope, das ebenfalls 2007 first light sah. The work stoppage began after the observatory failed to reach an agreement with the workers' union. They are powered by twin turbocharged 500 kW Diesel engines. The vehicles were made by Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik [de][17] in Germany and are 10 m wide, 20 m long and 6 m high, weighing 130 tonnes. Das Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) ist ein internationales Radioteleskop-Observatorium in den nordchilenischen Anden. Video compilation showing various aspects of ALMA. Start of Early Science Cycle 1. Thirty-four 12-m antennas in the 12-m array, nine 7-m antennas in the 7-m array, and two 12-m antennas in the TP array. Alma – Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array – heißt das gigantische Teleskop im nördlichen Chile. A talk on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), by Leonardo Testi. 66th and final antenna arrived and accepted. This was mainly for political reasons. A drone camera flies overhead the ALMA observatory, showing the 66 telescopes that make up the array in the wilderness of Chile's Atacama desert. ACT wird gemeinsam von 17 Institutionen aus den USA (unter anderem der Princeton University), Kanada, Mexiko, Chile, Südafrika und Großbritannien gebaut und betrieben und hauptsächlich von der National Science Foundation finanziert. European, North American & Japanese amend agreement on the Enhanced ALMA. This video clip shows the distinguished guests, including the President of Chile, Sebastián Piñera, arriving at the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located at an altitude of 2900 meters in the Atacama Desert in Chile for the inauguration of the giant telescope.

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